Pasilla Bajio-Chilaca Pepper

Pasilla Bajio-Chilaca Pepper

The Pasilla Bajio-Chilaca Pepper is also known as Chile Negro, or Chilaca when picked fresh. The name, ‘Pasilla’ means ‘little raisin’ in Spanish, referring to the dark brown, wrinkled dried pod. The plant height grows between 75-135 cm tall and produces a large fruit 15 cm in length and 3 cm in diameter. Like all peppers it is astronomically  classified as a Capsicum annum. It carries a very mild Scoville units rating of 200 – 500, making it a mildly hot fruit. The pepper is slightly sweet and has a very distinctive slender 8-12″ long, thin walled, pepper fruit that ripens from dark green to dark brown. When well ripened and used as a dried pod or in powder form, they have a unique rich and full flavor that is the key ingredient in mole, a signature Mexican holiday sauce from the Oaxaca region of Mexico. Growing the Bajio-Chilaca Grow her in a medium to large hydro-organic container. Buy or plant the seeds in a mini hydro cup. The seeds will take up to 3 weeks to germinate and then another 2 more weeks for the roots to fill the soil. By that time the baby bush will be 15cm tall and ready for a medium to large hydro-organic container. 75-80 days after enjoying watching them grow, your goingto be picking and drying the dark brown, banana shaped fruits. Cooking | Pasilla Bajio-Chilaca Pepper Known for it’s rich smoky flavor it can be used to flavor any dish. While its been a long-standing staple ingredient in the Mole sauces of Latin America, this pepper is also gaining favor among Italian chefs as well for its uniquely dense pepper flavor. The pasilla can even create an interesting twist in the flavor and appearance of the standard red-chile enchilada sauce.  It is also a favorite in combination with fruits or accompanying duck, seafood, lamb, mushrooms, garlic, fennel, honey or oregano. Stuffed Pasilla Peppers Recipe This delicious, healthy version of Pasilla Peppers gives you all the satisfaction of restaurant-style Mexican food with lean turkey, reduced fat cheese, black beans and brown rice. Minutes to Prepare: 20 Minutes to Cook: 40 Number of Servings: 4 Ingredients 2 pablano/pasilla peppers1 /2 lb. ground turkey (93% lean) 1 1/2 cups Enchilada Sauce 1 cup refried black beans 1 cup brown rice2 cups water 1 1/2 cup shredded low-fat jack cheese 1 large onion, quartered 1 jalepeno pepper, halved 1 large tomato, quartered 4-5 cloves garlic, peeled 1 bunch cilantro 1 Tbs. olive oilSalt, to taste Pepper, to taste 2 tsp. taco seasoning 1/2 cup non-fat sour cream Directions Turn oven to 350 and bring a medium size saucepan of lightly salted water to boil. Pre-heat large skillet on medium heat (use vent fan, as cooked jalepenos spice up the kitchen). Start rice in rice maker (or on stovetop, if preferred) using two teaspoons of the taco seasoning. In food processor, blend tomato, onion, garlic, cilantro, jalepeno until they are finely minced and mixed. This is your sofrito. Add ground turkey to skillet with sofrito and cook until meat is done and excess moisture is cooked off. Remove from heat and sprinkle with 1/2 cup of the shredded cheese. Halve peppers lengthwise, remove seeds. Immerse in boiling water for three minutes. Remove, drain and pat dry. Place 1/2 cup of the enchilada sauce in the bottom half of a square baking dish. Place halved peppers in the baking dish, spoon in cooked turkey mixture and top evenly with the remaining enchilada sauce and cheese. Bake for 20-30 minutes (until heated through and cheese is melted and browning). Remove and...

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Explosive Ember Hot Ornamental Pepper

Explosive Ember Hot Ornamental Pepper

Explosive Ember is an upright, edible ornamental pepper with unique purple foliage and purple flowers when in full sun. It grows 10″ to 14″ tall and 8″ to 10″ wide. Explosive Ember is versatile, vigorous, and very easy to grow. It is a plant that is both good looking and spicy. Explosive Embers are bushy, well-branched with rigid, brittle stems and thin, narrow, dark green and purple leaves. Before developing into the fruit, their flowers are inconspicuous but flashy, six-petaled purple and give way to cone-shaped, bunching pepper berries. After the blooms pass, the fruit begins to set in clusters of about half a dozen. The small hot peppers are born purple and then turn red and ember, standing above stunning purple and green foliage. On the interior the peppers are divided by spongy ribbing which supports many small, flattened, rounded seeds. The pepper fruits are mild but still hot. The younger fruits are sharper, while the mature peppers are sweeter in taste. It has a rating of 3000 Scoville Units. Plants take 130 – 145 days to produce fruit after planting from seed. Never plant over 1/4″ deep....

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Hot Pepper Scoville Unit

Hot Pepper Scoville Unit

 The Scoville Organoleptic Unit Test Wilbur Scoville lived from 1865-1942. Professor: Massachusetts College of Pharmacy (1892-1904) Wilbur Scoville is famous for his heat scale work at Park Davis, a Detroit-based pharmaceutical company, where he devised a heat scale for peppers. This test is named after him, the Scoville Organoleptic Test. Originally, Scoville ratings were based on human response to progressive dilutions. Scoville blended pure ground chiles with a sugar-water solution and a panel of testers then sipped the concoctions, in increasingly diluted concentrations. They reach a point at which the liquid no longer burned the mouth. A number was then assigned to each chile based on how much it needed to be diluted before you could taste no heat. The American Pharmaceutical Association awarded Scoville the Ebert Prize in 1922, and the Remington Honor Medal in 1929, though likely these awards had nothing to do with his eponym. Scoville Units Popular Pepper Varieties 0-100 Scoville Units includes most Bell & Sweet pepper varieties. 500-1000 Scoville Units includes New Mexican peppers. 1,000-1,500 Scoville Units includes Espanola peppers. 1,000-2,000 Scoville Units includes Ancho & Pasilla peppers. 1,000-2,500 Scoville Units includes Cascabel & Cherry peppers. 2,500-5,000 Scoville Units includes Jalapeno & Mirasol peppers. 5,000-15,000 Scoville Units includes Serrano peppers. 15,000-30,000 Scoville Units includes de Arbol peppers. 30,000-50,000 Scoville Units includes Cayenne & Tabasco peppers. 50,000-100,000 Scoville Units includes Chiltepin peppers 100,000-350,000 Scoville Units includes Scotch Bonnet & Thai peppers. 200,000 to 300,000 Scoville Units includes Habanero peppers. 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 Scoville Units includes all the world class C. chinense varieties originating mostly from a particular Trinidadian strain. 16,000,000+ Scoville Units is Pure Capsaicin. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Test (HPLC) The validity and accuracy of the Scoville Unit test have been widely criticized. Today the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) test is used in research sittuations. Pepper pods are dried and ground. The chemicals responsible for the pungency, capsaicin are extracted. The extract is injected into the HPLC machine for analysis. This method is more costly than the the human version. However it allows for an objective heat analysis. Not only does this method measure the total heat present, but it also gives the quantity of the different capsaicinoids. Do Hot Peppers Damage the Tongue Can very hot peppers have the potential to damage taste buds? “Not true”. Says Dr. Paul Bosland, professor of horticulture at New Mexico State University and author or several books on hot peppers. “We should think of chile heat like we do the taste of salt; easy to overdo in the moment, but not damaging to your mouth over the long term. Even the hottest habanero (100,000–350,000 on the Scoville scale), which can stay on your palate for hours — if not days –  won’t wear out your tender buds.” Bosland and his colleagues have broken the heat profile of chile peppers into five distinctly different characteristics. 1) how hot it is, 2) how fast the heat comes on, 3) whether it linger or dissipates quickly, 4) where you sense the heat – on the tip of tongue, at the back of throat, etc., and 5) whether the heat registers as “flat” or “sharp.”   Read more:...

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Bolivian Rainbow Chilli Pepper

Bolivian Rainbow Chilli Pepper

Bolivian Rainbow’s  small naturally bushy plants produce 100’s of small, teardrop shaped, hot chillies. Bolivian Rainbow Chilli Pepper produces fruit year around making it a bright and colorful addition to your home’s garden or patio. It produces small five-petaled purple flowers that give way to conical fruits. These small conical fruits turn different colors as they mature. The peppers start out a brilliant purple and turn yellow to orange to red, with all stages of the pepper present on the plant at once. The peppers are small, about 1 inch, and cone-shaped, growing upright on the plant. They somewhat resemble Christmas lights because of their shape and their bright and differing colors. The peppers stand bright against the deep purple-hued stems and leaves of this tall bushy pepper. Bolivian Rainbow peppers can reach up to 18 inches tall and 24 inches wide. It is classified as an ornamental pepper however the fruit is “Hot” and tasty, so use them cautiously. Most of the heat comes from the pithy ribs, inner lining and seeds of the pepper, so keep this in mind when cooking with them. The Bolivian Rainbow’s chiles are delicious in salads or salsas, and can be dried or pickled. Bolivian Rainbow is part of the Capsicum genus. Its scientific name is Capsicum annuum longum group ‘Bolivian Rainbow’ grown for centuries in Bolivia.      ...

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Black Pearl Pepper Plant

Black Pearl Pepper Plant

Black Pearl Pepper’s scientific name is Capsicum annuum longum. It is the blackest pepper ever hybridized. It was developed by arboretum Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit scientists Rob Griesbach and John Stommel of the Agricultural Research Service’s Vegetable Laboratory. Black Pearl is compact, bushy, hot pepper grown for its ornamental beauty more than it’s taste. It is heat tolerant and wants to be planted in the full sun. The pepper grows vigorously 12 to 18 inches tall with approximately the same width. It sets masses of 2cm small round ‘pearl shaped’ pods, which ripens from black to a rich, deep red. Black Pearl’s leaves will start out green but will turn black as soon as they hit full sun. It is considered an annual, which means it typically only grows best for a single growing season, however you can bring it into a second year. In 2006, she was the All-America Selections, Flower Award winner. It was the talk of the...

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Bell Peppers And Your Health

Bell Peppers And Your Health

There is a good reason to eat hot or sweet Bell Peppers for your health and not for just taste alone. When you grow peppers you are raising vitamins on a bush. Not only are they richer in vitamin C than oranges, they are also lower in calories. Growing bell peppers will make all of this nutrition available to you at a cost of just 33 calories per fruit. Nutrition is only the tip of the health iceberg. Refer to the bibliography at the bottom of this page. Peppers are used: used in the treatment of functional dyspepsia used in the in the management of surgical neuropathic pain in cancer patients used in treatment of the post-mastectomy pain syndrome used for cluster headache pain used as pain plaster in chronic non-specific low back pain used in in dermatology for treatment of itching and pain used in treatment of postherpetic neuralgia used to treat painful diabetic neuropathy used in the treatment of prurigo nodularis  jalapeno peppers are used for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection used in the treatment of prurigo nodularisprotects against aspirin-induced gastroduodenal mucosal injury used in the treatment of pain due to fibromyalgia reduces painful osteoarthritis of the hands used in the treatment of arthritis reduce chronic human neuropathic pain Bell peppers are low in calories! So, even if you eat one full cup of them, you get just about 45 calories. One cup will give you more than your daily quota of Vitamin A and C! One large green pepper contains approximately 287 mg of potassium They contain plenty of vitamin C, which powers up your immune system and keeps skin youthful.  The highest amount of Vitamin C in a bell pepper is concentrated in the red variety. Red bell peppers contain several phytochemicals and carotenoids,  particularly beta-carotene, which lavish you with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits. The capsaicin in bell peppers has multiple health benefits. Studies show that it reduces ‘bad’ cholesterol, controls diabetes, brings relief from pain and eases inflammation. If cooked for a short period on low heat, bell peppers retain most of their sweet, almost fruity flavor and flavonoid content, which is a powerful nutrient. The sulfur content in bell peppers makes them play a protective role in certain types of cancers. The bell pepper is a good source of Vitamin E, which is known to play a key role in keeping skin and hair looking youthful. Bell peppers also contain vitamin B6, which is essential for the health of the nervous system and helps renew cells. Certain enzymes in bell peppers, such as lutein, protect the eyes from cataracts and macular degeneration later in life. Bibliography of researched information concerning peppers and our health: 1. McCleane G. Topical application of doxepin hydrochloride, capsaicin and a combination of both produces analgesia in chronic human neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000;49:574-579. 2. Deal CL, Schnitzer TJ, Lipstein E, et al. Treatment of arthritis with topical capsaicin: A double blind trial. Clin Ther. 1991;13:383-395. 3. McCarthy GM, McCarty DJ. Effect of topical capsaicin in the therapy of painful osteoarthritis of the hands. J Rheumatol. 1992;19:604-607. 4. McCarty DJ, Csuka M, McCarthy, et al. Treatment of pain due to fibromyalgia with topical capsaicin: A pilot study. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1994;23(suppl 3):41-47. 5. Yeoh KG, Kang JY, Yap I, et al. Chili protects against aspirin-induced gastroduodenal mucosal injury in humans. Dig Dis Sci. 1995;40:580-583. 6. Abdel Salam OM, Moszik G, Szolcsanyi J. Studies on the effect of intragastric capsaicin on gastric ulcer and on the prostacyclin-induced cytoprotection in rats. Pharmacol Res. 1995;32:209-215....

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Red Noodle Yard Long Pole Beans

Red Noodle Yard Long Pole Beans

Red Noodle Yard long Pole bean is a fast grower.  Your not going to need to plant them in a small pot first.. at all. I recommend planting 5 groups of them in a large Fincita container and placing it in the center of a Flying Nun. In that way they can grow all over the structure while accenting the other 12 pots hanging out in the perimeter. They will be a foot tall only a week after they germinate. So hold on to your hats. Due to their continuous growth habit, pole beans are always at different stages of development. Keep the plants well picked to increase overall yields....

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Red Mexican Bush Beans | General Overview

Red Mexican Bush Beans | General Overview

Mexican Bush Bean Description The Red Mexican Dry Bush Bean (Fabaceae Phaseolus vulgaris)  also known as “Montezuma’s Red,”most everyone is familiar with. Why? Because it is an abundant producer, hardy and easy to grow. Above all it is a pleasure to cook with.  It became ea favorite in southern California way back in 1855. I would imagine it jumped the Rio Grand into southern USA when the cowboys were still in control of the frontier. Dry beans traveled well in the saddle-bag. I am sure. You might be more interested in their texture and taste. Mexican Bush Bean Cooking and Nutrition Weather making soup, baking or canning, this big guy bean holds it’s shape and never gets soggy. So let’s rock with the Mexicans and their cool bush bean. Beans are rich in iron and potassium. They have all the carbs you could want with a bunch of protein as well. If you don’t add it to the recipe there will be no fat content. The basic carb-fat-protein count is roughly 16-0-8. You’ll find dozens of recipes for Black Beans and not so many for Big Red. But look here for a recipe from The Bush Family.   Caribbean BBQ Beans Prep: 15 Minutes | Cook: 20 Minutes | Total: 35 Minutes 8 1 tablespoon olive oil 7 ounces pulled pork or chorizo (casing removed) 1 medium onion, diced 4 cloves garlic, chopped 2 jalapeno peppers, seeded and chopped 1/2 cup ketchup 1/2 cup molasses 1/4 cup Dijon mustard 2 tablespoons brown sugar 2 tablespoons Worcestershire sauce 1 tablespoon hot sauce (or more to taste) 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger 32 ounce precooked Red Beans Directions Heat oil in a 10-inch skillet over medium heat. Cook pulled pork or chorizo until browned. Drain; transfer meat to plate. Add onion, garlic and jalapeno to skillet; cook about 3 minutes or until onion is tender. Stir in ketchup, molasses, mustard, brown sugar, Worcestershire sauce, hot sauce and ginger. Return meat to skillet and bring to a boil. Reduce heat and cook 2 minutes. Stir in beans. Simmer over low heat 15 minutes; stir occasionally. Serve warm. Bean & Veggie Pitas Prep: 20 Minutes | Cook: 0 Minutes | Feed 6 People 2 cups thinly sliced red cabbage 1 1/2 cups canned red beans, rinsed and drained 1 (10 ounce) can diced tomatoes with green chilies, drained 1 cup fresh or frozen corn 1/2 cup diced zucchini 1/2 cup diced yellow summer squash 1/4 cup finely chopped onion 1 tablespoon minced fresh cilantro 1 tablespoon lime juice DIJON DRESSING: 3 tablespoons olive or canola oil 3 tablespoons red wine vinegar or cider vinegar 3 tablespoons Dijon mustard 2 tablespoons honey 1 tablespoon lime juice 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon ground cumin 1/8 teaspoon cayenne pepper 6 (6 inch) whole wheat pita breads, halved 12 lettuce leaves DIRECTIONS In a bowl, combine the first nine ingredients; set aside. In a jar with tight-fitting lid, combine the oil, vinegar, mustard, honey, lime juice, garlic powder, salt, cumin and cayenne; shake well. Line pita halves with lettuce; fill each with about 1/3 cup vegetable mixture. Drizzle with dressing. Mexican Bush Bean Growing Organic The “Bush” in “Bush Bean” means it’s growth is controllable. It stays where it was planted and grows into a rounded bushy plant. It doesn’t want to climb on top of what ever is growing next to it like a pole bean would. You remember the story about Jack? However, like pole beans this bush bean is normally picked mature, hard and dry. In this respect it is similar...

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Purple Bush Bean | Go Grow Organic

Purple Bush Bean | Go Grow Organic

Purple Bush Bean produces long slightly curved dark purple pods that turn dark green when cooked. Excellent flavor and string-less but best picked when pods are young. They race up their supports, burst into shocking magenta flower, and then produce hundreds of gorgeous regal purple beans. The pods are attractive and round with a waxy finish. Ready to pick in around 52 days, they can be eaten whole or sliced. The taste is wonderfully fresh with a crisp, clean aftertaste and the fact that they are also stringless heightens the culinary experience. Best picked when around the thickness of a pencil and as with most legumes, the more you pick the better your crop will be.

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Black Turtle Bush Beans

Black Turtle Bush Beans

Black Turtle is a classic soup bean, that stores well and is an important sources of protein in vegetarian diets. It is especially well known in Latin American countries like Costa Rica."Pura Vida"! Black Bean flowers are esthetically pleasing as well as tasty. If you overproduced the plant, then start putting the flowers in your salads. Otherwise wait to harvest and store them as long as you like in the cupboard. Black Turtle Bush bean bods, ready to harvest tout a creamy white colored pod. "Black beans in a white pod?", you ask... Will nature never quite the jokes? I hope not. Phaseolus vulgaris Black Turtle is a classic soup bean, that can be stored well for up to a year or more, so don’t worry about planting too many. It’s primary use is  a dry shell bean. Great for the breakfast feast, eggs and Gillo Pinto. This hardy bush type has great disease resistance and does well even in drought and heat! If picked young, pods can also be used as a snap bean. It’s an oval bean that is jet black. It mature in about 90 days in a medium to large container. Black beans are widely used throughout Latin America, the  Caribbean, and the southern United States, especially in Florida and Texas. Black bean soups, stews and sauces are very common in Latin American  countries. Black beans are becoming more popular in the United States, due to increased immigration from Latin American countries, and the culinary traditions these immigrants bring with them. As are all legumes, Black Turtle beans are high in protein. Dried beans are important sources of protein in vegetarian diets especially. But note, it’s protein is incomplete and does not contain all 9 amino acids. Other grains will provide the missing amino acids or small amounts of dairy products, meat, poultry or fish. Fish contain the complete essential proteins. Long ago, via the 3 sisters style of planting in Central America and southern Mexico, corn supplied the missing amino acids, and squash was an additional source of vitamins. Black beans, as are all dried beans, are a good sources of starches, fiber, B vitamins, iron, zinc, phosphorus, complex carbohydrates and calcium. About half of the calcium is lost during cooking. High percentages of the other nutrients remain however, even after cooking.   Using Black Beans Cleaning Black Beans Black beans, like all dried beans, can be soaked before cooking. This hydration helps to reduce the cooking time, but it does effect nutrient content and flavor adversely. Because they are small, 2-4 hours soaking in cold water should suffice. Drain, and cook as per recipe. If you don’t have the time, boil the beans in water for 1-3 minutes, turn off heat, cover the pot and let them sit for one hour. Drain and proceed as per recipe. However, there is a problem with this quick soaking (boiling for 1-3 minutes) method. Hot water increases the solubility of the water soluble nutrients, and softens the cell membranes of the beans, further accelerating the loss of these nutrients. This should be a consideration, because of the long cooking time during which more nutrients are lost. Cold soaked and cooked at a very gentle simmer, beans retain most of their nutrients, which are considerable. Cooking Black Beans Drain the soaking water and add cold water, 1 part beans to 2 or 3 parts cold water. Bring to a boil, then reduce heat to a very slow simmer, so the beans stay in their jackets. Simmer for 2 hours. See the video above for a great bean...

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Bean Seed Inoculation | Rhizobium Bacteria

Bean Seed Inoculation | Rhizobium Bacteria

Beans Produce their Own Fertilizer Bean Seed Inoculation helps legumes such as peas and beans to “fix” their own nitrogen. Beans produce much of their own nitrogen needs via a symbiotic relationship with a group of  bacteria called rhizobacteria or rhizobium. Rhizobium is a soil bacteria that fix nitrogen for legume plants. Our atmosphere contains more than 75% nitrogen gas (N2).  They convert the nitrogen gas in the atmosphere into ammonia nitrogen NH3+, a form usable by the plant.  Bean Seed Inoculation is important so as to ensure this bacteria-root dance. Colorado State University has a very well written page on Bean Seed Inoculation, if you are interested in reading the technical description of this process. Inoculating the seeds with Rhizobium bacteria before planting is helpful. Multifaceted Symbiosis All legumes, including beans, interact with the Rhizobium and interchanging metabolic fluids. Legume plants have the ability to form a symbiotic relationship with rhizobium bacteria. Inside the nodules, the bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia NH3+, providing organic nitrogenous compounds to the plant. In return, the plant provides the bacteria with organic compounds made by photosynthesis. The bean’s roots exude certain carbohydrates for the bacteria and in return the bacteria produce nutrients. The carbohydrates are basic food stuffs for the bacteria. This encourages the rhizobia to adhere to it. The bacteria multiply on the roots surface and cause more root hairs to grow. On these root hairs begins a process called ‘nodule formation”. The bacteria colonize plant cells within root nodules. Inside these small tumors the bacteria induce specialized genes required for nitrogen fixation. This important function allows bean plants to convert nitrogen from the gaseous form found in the air N2, into a usable form. This allows beans to use this nitrogen for plant growth. Without these beneficial bacteria, beans cannot fix nitrogen. Soils normally do not contain many rhizobium bacteria. So it is necessary to inoculate the legume with the proper strains of bacteria prior to planting the seeds. Bean Seed Inoculation is a low-cost process which returns benefits many times higher than the costs. Bean Seed Inoculation | Rhizobium Bacteria Bean Seed Inoculation couldn’t be easier. There is no special procedure really. Take 500ml of the OST Rhizobium, which contains at least 109 rizobios/gram and add 2 tablespoons of crude sugar. Place your seeds in it for a few minutes. Some seeds like a dunking for a few hours. This all depends on the state of the seeds being planted. Imported, older seeds could need a bit more time to hydrate than fresh seeds recently harvested. Afterwards, just plant the seeds. There is no drenching of soil or anything more to do. If your supply of the inoculate is limited, then you might want to reuse the liquid. Store it away in a cool place for the next batch. It’ is always better to store your containers of fungus and bacterias in the refrigerator if your not performing Bean Seed Inoculation...

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Organic Bean Growing History

Organic Bean Growing History

Beans are one of the longest-cultivated plants It goes without saying (but not here) that the first beans were organically grown. The term “organic” is a recent concept. Before WWII the word was not so popular. It wasn’t until a deadly war that the world began to develop chemical fertilizers to increase the populations 4 fold. Before then all crops were “organic”. Eve grew “organic” beans!? I was told that Adam and Eve actually had their encounter with a yard long pole bean, not a snake after they eat the wrong/right mushroom. That’s hard to verify so lets not elaborate and get on to something verifiable. Broad beans, in their wild state, the size of a small fingernail, were gathered in Afghanistan and the Himalayan foothills. This is verifiable in a scholarly abstract Agricultural Origins: Centers and Noncenter by Chester F. Gorman. (incredible article) But not until the second millennium BC did cultivated, large-seeded broad beans appear in Europe. The broad bean is said to have been brought to Britain by the Romans 2000 years ago. It was also an important crop sown by monks during the Middle Ages. Organic beans were an important source of protein throughout Old and New World history, and still are today. I can verify that because I live and work in Central America, Costa Rica the black bean capital of the world. Everybody here likes Gillo Pinto (beans & rice) for breakfast, lunch, dinner and desert. The desert comes with cream on top so don’t scrunch your nose at the idea. The oldest-known domesticated beans (obviously they were organic beans) in the Americas were found in Guitarrero Cave, an archaeological site in Peru, and dated to around the second millennium BC. Most of the varieties popular today come originally from the Americas. This was verified by Europeans when Columbus’s crew found 5 types growing in fields, domesticated by pre-Columbian peoples. One especially famous use of beans by pre-Columbian people is the “Three Sisters” method of companion plant...

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