Biofertilizer Aquaponics & Biochar

Biofertilizer Aquaponics  & Biochar

Biofertilizers (also known as “plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria” or PGPR) have come on rapidly in “sustainable” agricultural circles, providing eco-friendly organic agro-input. A biofertilizer contains living microorganisms which, when inoculated into biochar or soil, promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of major nutrients, such as Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Bio-fertilizers add nutrients through the natural processes of nitrogen fixation, solubilizing phosphorus, and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth-promoting bacterial...

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Broad Mite Description | Control

Broad Mite Description | Control

Broad Mites are a very real hazard when propagating peppers. Of all the foods available for them to eat, peppers are the most nutritional for this pest. So heads-up. If you are going to grow your own supply of super hot capsicum like the Bhut Jolokia Ghost Pepper, or even the simplest sweet baby bell, you need to know how to identify and control this big problem this little bug can cause. Way back when I first started growing pepper plants, my peppers caught this bug instantaneously. I ma growing in the upper central valley in my beautiful home nest of Costa Rica. I searched the internet...

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Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Nitrogen-fixation

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Nitrogen-fixation

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus General Description Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (formerly Acetobacter diazotrophicus) is a bacilli, aerobic, obligate endophytic (an endosymbiont), diazotrophic (bacteria that fix atmospheric N) bacterium discovered by Joana Dobereiner (1924 to 2000).  It has been undergoing lab and field tests in research institutions around the globe for the past 50 years, ever since it was first isolated from the phyllosphere as well as the rhizophere of inter-cellular spaces of sugarcane. It was discovered in the high yielding Brazilian sugar cane varieties (e.g. SP...

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Fungus Isaria fumosorosea Controls Flys

Fungus Isaria fumosorosea Controls Flys

 Fungus Isaria fumosorosea General Information  Isaria fumosorosea, was first described as Paecilomyces fumosoroseus by M. Wize in 1904. It is now considered a very effective fungal entomopathogen. It was discovered by M. Wize in a suffering sugar beet weevil in the Ukraine but has a huge distribution range. Isaria fumosorosea is a species complex rather than a single species. This means there are wide variations. Undoubtedly there will be taxonomic revisions of this group in the future (Zimmermann, 2008). Isaria fumosorosea is found in the soil, on plants, in the air, on every continent in...

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Bacillus thurigiensis var israelensis BTI | Larvae Toxin

Bacillus thurigiensis var israelensis BTI  | Larvae Toxin

The following article was gleaned from Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Department of Entomology General Description  Bacillus thurigiensis var israelensis According to Cornell University, there are over 100 species of bacteria that are thought to be pathonogenic to insects. So far very few of these have been studied enough to give us a working relationship with the microbe. But that is not the case with Bacillus thuringiensis. Since the 1960s this microbe has been developed as a microbial insecticide, of which several species are now available in laboratories...

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The Amazing Actinomycete Bacteria

The Amazing Actinomycete Bacteria

The Amazing Actinomycete Bacteria Actinomycetes differ from other soil bacteria in many ways. Actinomycetes develop filaments, almost the same as fungal hyphae. Some researchers believe Actinomycetes use these filaments for connecting themselves together with soil pieces. In doing so, they become too big to be eaten by their enemy the protozoan ciliates. Ciliate protozoans engulf and ingest our friends the aerobic bacteria. The most important note concerning Actinomycetes: they are particularly handy at decaying cellulose and chitin. These are two hard, brown carbon compounds in plants,...

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Pseudomonas fluorescens Phosphate Solubilization

Pseudomonas fluorescens Phosphate Solubilization

Pseudomonas fluorescens General Description Pseudomonas fluorescens is found in many soils throughout the globe but in small numbers. The species name ‘fluorescens’ was coined because of its ability to secrete a soluble, green colored fluorescent pigment called pyoverdin. It is well known that Pseudomonas fluorescens, in association with the plant rhizosphere, is able to exert a beneficial effect upon plant growth. It’s use as biofertilizer and pathogen control agent for microbial-agriculture is a commonly used strain of bacteria because of it’s ability to liberate...

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Springtails a Beneficial Arthropod

Springtails a Beneficial Arthropod

 “I Have a Springtail Infestation” When I am threw with a grow and replacing the BioChar and substrates in the container to grow another plant, I always keep an eye out for what I can see. I look for differences in root growth and infestations of arthropods. If things were done correctly, I always find Springtails, a beneficial arthropod, dominating the area in the bottom half of the container in the BC.  I find 100′s of thousands of the little white critters springing, walking and bouncing around, wondering who turned the lights on. But not to worry about this particular...

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Beauveria bassiana Entomopathogenic Fungi

Beauveria bassiana Entomopathogenic Fungi

Beauveria bassiana General Information Beauveria bassiana, formerly also known as Tritirachium shiotae, is an entomopathogenic fungus (parasitic to insects) that grows naturally in soils throughout the world.  It acts as a parasite on a very wide variety of arthropods, including, whiteflies, termites, thrips, aphids, beetles,caterpillars, weevils, grasshoppers, ants, mealybugs, bedbugs and even malaria-transmitting mosquitoes. Insects vary in susceptibility to different strains. Strains have been collected from different infected insects and cultured to create a particular product for...

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De-chlorinate Water When Using Microbes

De-chlorinate Water When Using Microbes

How to De-chlorinate Water Using Microbes is very important. Most people take our drinking water from the tap for granted. It has been treated with chlorine so we never have to worry about pathogenic microbes cramping our style. But you have to remember that this same chlorine is a beneficial microbe killer as well. So when applying water to your Hydro-Organic tanks, seedlings, or performing any hydration work, it is important to de-chloronate this water before hand. But it ain’t hard so stop the frowning. De-chlorinate Water Using Microbes | Short Version  Place the water in an open...

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The Rhizosphere & Beneficial Microorganisms

The Rhizosphere & Beneficial Microorganisms

Living organic soils and the foods you apply to them should not only have large quantities of Beneficial Microorganisms (BM) but a large variety as well. In a few grams of good potting soil you will find hundreds of diverse varieties making up its 1,000,000,000 bacteria. Live Organic Fermented Liquid Fertilizers are bubbling with BMs, which ensure the microbe population is made up of the “good guys”. A large and divers community population will control pathogens. They compete with the pathogens for exudates, nutrients, air, water, and space. If the soil food web is a healthy one,...

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Endophytes Fungi & The Phyllosphere

Endophytes Fungi  & The Phyllosphere

A significant symbiotic partnership among fungi and plants is created by endophytes. Endophytic fungi, in contrast to their subterranean, root loving mycorrhizal fungus, have adjusted to exist in the upper components of plants. They reside in the stems, leave, and bark. Plant surfaces are taken over by countless endophytic fungal varieties. The main reason these types of microbes have escaped researchers awareness for so very long is that nearly all survive inside their host without any noticeable symptoms. Little by little the scientific community focused on the important role of endophytel...

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Bacteria & The Phyllosphere

Bacteria & The Phyllosphere

Prof. Julia Vorholt, Institute of Microbiology at ETH Zurich “One to ten million unicellular microorganisms live on every square centimeter of stems and foliage making the phyllosphere “the largest biological surface inhabited by microorganisms”, explains Prof. Julia Vorholt at the Institute of Microbiology at ETH Zuric. In recent years new investigative tools from microbiology have made it possible to gain a better insight into microorganisms and their function in complex microbe communities. “Two kinds of bacteria dominate this ecosystem, members of the Methylobacterium genus and...

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Bacteria Basics

Bacteria Basics

Bacteria’s Basic Function In spite of their tiny size, bacteria function as the planets second biggest agent for the decomposition of organic material. Fungus is the primary decomposers since they are able to handle tougher, complex ligdin fibers. But without bacteria, the world would be choked in waste materials. Using carbon (carbohydrates) as an energy source, bacteria break down plant materials in an effort to ingest nitrogen and other nutrients. Nutrients will be then kept fixed but “immobilized” within the bacteria’s body. Their consumed nutrients will be...

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Paecilomyces lilacinus

Paecilomyces lilacinus

Paecilomyces lilacinus General Description Here in the mountains of Costa Rica, there are whiteflys. Yes, “I have whiteflys!!” So I make the following statement with field experience authority. Paecilomyces lilacinus can be used against the nymphal stages of whiteflys, applied in combination with two other fungus, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium spp. The latter two of which are effective against the adult whiteflys while the Pae works on the larvae. Applying these three microbes together will bring down significantly the population of larvae and adults both. It’s a...

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Managing Whiteflies

Managing Whiteflies

“I  Have  Whiteflys!!!” From one morning to the next you mossy over to your pet bushes and bend down to smell one of your favorites. Like a bad dream, you see a white flex fleeting the vicinity of your incoming nostril breath. An old wound in your soul opens as you realize, “there back!”. Immediately you run to the microbe biological medicine cabinet in the garden house’s refrigerator. There you frantically search for the right bacteria, or was it fungus. A cold sweet breaks out on your forehead as you fumble for your list and notes. It reads: Trichoderma...

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Beneficial Microbes in Hydroponics

Beneficial Microbes in Hydroponics

Beneficial Microbes | Pathogen Control One reason soil-less cultures were originally developed was to control soil borne diseases. Soil-less cultures provide several advantages for growers such as greater production of crops, reduced energy consumption, better control of growth and independence of soil quality. But root diseases still occur frequently in hydroponics and disease outbreaks are sometimes greater than in soil (Stanghellini and Rasmussen, 1994). Pythium and Phytophthora sp. are particularly well adapted to aquatic environments. Their growth in soil-less substrates is favored by...

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Phytophthora the Hydro Plant-Destroyer

Phytophthora the Hydro Plant-Destroyer

Phytophthora is a genus of plant-destroying Oomycetes, commonly called water molds. Approximately 100 species have been described, although 100-500 undiscovered Phytophthora species are estimated to exist. I just hope one doesn’t invade my hydro-organic system. But I doubt it will. If you have a strong growth of beneficial biofilm going in your system, you most probably will never encounter this most common hydroponic fungus-like pathogen. Phytophthora is morphologically very similar to true fungi yet its evolutionary history is quite distinct. In contrast to fungi, they are more...

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Bacterial Biofilms

Bacterial Biofilms

Biofilm| Bacterias Natural State When we think of bacteria, beneficial or pathogenic, we imagine a single celled creature swimming independently looking for food. In actuality a bacteria’s natural state is in biofilms, referred to as  plaque or “slime”. The majority of all bacteria on Earth are located in biofim slime, thriving as complex colonies of co-dependent microbes in its self made matrix complete with irrigation and nutrient pathways. Slime or matrix associated microorganisms vastly outnumber organisms in suspension. These surface-bound bacteria behave quite...

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Bacterial Biofilm Water & Ground Treatment

Bacterial Biofilm Water & Ground Treatment

The below article is courtesy of http://biofilmbook.hypertextbookshop.com. It demonstrates two practical uses of a bacterial biofilm. Normally people encounter biofilm (slim) and really don’t know what it is. We all have seen it in it’s worst light. Having a bacterial biofilm on our hydro tanks does pose certain physical problems. It could clog pump lines, for example. But it also has it’s benefits. It is a nitrification dynamo turning organic carbon complexes into simple, soluable nutrients while keeping bacterial pathogens at bay. Water and Wastewater Treatment Engineers...

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