adsorb– is when an element compound or molecule adheres to the surface of an object in a condensed layer.

absorb– is when a substance is taken into an object internally.

Ammonia vs Ammonium- Ammonia is un-ionized, and has the formula NH3 (a weak base). Ammonium (an acid,) is ionized, and has the formula NH4+. One of the noticeable differences between the two is that Ammonia gives out a strong smell whereas Ammonium does not smell at all. Ammonia (NH3) is an actual gas or liquid you can see. It is not ionic. When ammonia goes ionic, which happens when you add ammonia to water, it draws a hydrogen away from a water molecule to form ammonium (NH4+).

 The chemical equation that drives the relationship between ammonia and ammonium is:
NH3 + H2O ↔ NH4+ + OH-

The major factor that determines the proportion of ammonia or ammonium in water is water pH. When the pH is low, the reaction is driven to the right, and when the pH is high, the reaction is driven to the left.  This is important as the unionized NH3 is the form that can be toxic to aquatic organisms. The ionized NH4+ is basically harmless to aquatic organisms.

AMF- arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi- is another name for endomycorrhezal fungi. These actually penetrate and grow inside the roots as well as extend outward casting a net for nutrients up to 10 meters away from the plants. AMF belong to the fungal phylum Glomeromycota.

Chelate– The word translated from the Greek word “chel”, means crab’s claw. It refers to the claw like manner in which a metal (usually iron) is bound in the molecule. Chelation loosely binds metal ions in an inner circle. They allow it  to be moved freely within a cell and plant. Chelated compounds in solution outside the plant, in the soil, protect it from combining with other elements and precipitate out of reach.

Chitin– a tough, protective, semitransparent, horny, nitrogen-containing polysaccharide, related chemically to cellulose, forming the principal constituent of the exoskeletons of arthropod (insects, crustaceans, and arachnids) exoskeletons.

Desiccation– is one of the four major systems of storing microbes. Desiccation is the removal of H2O from the microbial culture. Desiccation is mostly used to store the bacteria (fungi like with hyphea) actinomycetes  for long periods. This can be done using the mediums of inert material such as sand, silica gel, or sterile paper.

ECM– ectomycorrhizal fungi- These are a special group of mycorrhezal fungi species that live in the rhizosphere OUTSIDE the plant roots and root hairs. They do not penetrate the plant root cell walls. The symbiosis all takes place around the roots.

ERM- ericoid mycorrhizal fungi-

Euclonia maxima– is the dominant vegetation in the shallow oceans of South Africa to Namibia. It is primarily used for feeding cultured abalone in farming. It’s use in agriculture is most important as well.

Lignin (also spelled lignen) is a complex chemical compound found in wood. It is also an integral part of the secondary cell walls of plants.   The word “lignin” is derived from the Latin word lignum, meaning wood. It is a dfficulte compound to decompose. The microbe Actinomycetes however, is responsible for most of it’s Mineralization of it’s Nitrogen along with Cellulomonas bacteria

lithotrophic– are microorganisms, either in the domain of Bacteria or Archaea. The word “Lithotroph” is made up of two Latin words ‘lithos’, rock and ‘troph’, eater, meaning the eater of rocks. Red lava rock found in Costa Rica contains phototrophic lithotrophic archaea which are nitrogen fixers. They survived the hot lava formation and cooling by going dormant. These rocks may be ground into powder, mixed with nutrients such as fish proteins and revived.

Microbiology– is a word derived from Greek root words micro and biology. Micro or mīkros meaning “small” and biology, bios, remaining life. It basically is the study of small microscopic unicellular microorganisms. The discipline studies a variety of small units of mostly living things such as  includes fungi, bacteria, Viruses and even non living prions.

Molds– can be multi or uni cellular microbes. Fungus which live in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.Fungi that grow as single cells are commonly called yeasts.

Mycorrhezal fungi– form a symbiotic relationship between them and  plants. There are two forms ,ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhezal fungi.

Nitrogen fixation- Nitrogen fixation is the process by which the air (gaseous nitrogen, N2) is converted to ammonia or ammonium (NH3 or NH4+) via biological fixation. For plants to be able to use nitrogen, it has to be FIXED, meaning, combined with either oxygen or hydrogen, producing ions of ammonium. N2 to  NH4+ is a process where N2 is converted to ammonium. Ammonia  is the one and only way that microorganisms can get nitrogen directly from the air we breath. Some bacteria, such as those the Rhizobium, Aztobactor, Clostridium and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, to name a few, can fix nitrogen through metabolic processes.

Phosphorous- Phosphorus (as P2O5)

phyllosphere– refers to the surface area of the leaves of plants and herbs. This area should be sprayed with beneficial microorganism as to create a colony that will be occupied by them rather than organisms that will be harmful to the leaf cell structure. Leaves produce exudates, as do the roots. BM (Beneficial Microorganisms) produce not only nutrients that are available but produce inhibitory compounds, vitamins and antibiotics that form a protective barrier that maintain plant health.

Phototrophic bacteria are lithotrophic bacteria that use photosynthesis as their source of energy. (see lithotrophic

Potasium- Potassium (as K2O)

rhizosphere– refers to the 5mm of soil area in and around the root system of herbs and plants. All of the soil based microorganisms beneficial to plants are located in and around this area.

Salicylic acidC7H6O3 is an organic compound discovered in the late 1880’s. It is an extract of a Willow tree hence its name salix, Latin for willow. It is similar to the active ingredient in aspirin. SA acts as a plant hormone related to controlling plant pathogens. It plays an important role in the resistance to pathogens. It stimulates the plant to induce pathogenesis proteins. It is also involved in the Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) where an attack on one part of the plant initiates resistance in another parts. What is amazing is that the signal can also move to other plants in the same vicinity by SA being turned into avolatile ester, methyl salicylate. it can be used to stabilize ferments by eliminating live microorganisms. Other antibiotic substances that could be used instead are garlic or bamboo leaf extracts.
Other Related Compounds

  • 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid,
  • Benzoic acid,
  • Bismuth subsalicylate,
  • Choline salicylate,
  • Magnesium salicylate,
  • Methyl salicylate,
  • Phenol, Aspirin,
  • Sulfosalicylic acid